Intra-individual variation in urinary iodine concentration: effect of statistical correction on population distribution using seasonal three-consecutive-day spot urine in children
To determine the effect of statistical correction for intra-individual variation on estimated urinary iodine concentration (UIC) by sampling on 3 consecutive days in four seasons in children.
School-aged children from urban and rural primary schools in Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.
748 and 640 children aged 8–11 years were recruited from urban and rural schools, respectively, in Harbin.
The spot urine samples were collected once a day for 3 consecutive days in each season over 1 year. The UIC of the first day was corrected by two statistical correction methods: the average correction method (average of days 1, 2; average of days 1, 2 and 3) and the variance correction method (UIC of day 1 corrected by two replicates and by three replicates). The variance correction method determined the SD between subjects (Sb) and within subjects (Sw), and calculated the correction coefficient (Fi), Fi=Sb/(Sb+Sw/di), where di was the number of observations. The UIC of day 1 was then corrected using the following equation:
The variance correction methods showed the overall Fi was 0.742 for 2 days’ correction and 0.829 for 3 days’ correction; the values for the seasons spring, summer, autumn and winter were 0.730, 0.684, 0.706 and 0.703 for 2 days’ correction and 0.809, 0.742, 0.796 and 0.804 for 3 days’ correction, respectively. After removal of the individual effect, the correlation coefficient between consecutive days was 0.224, and between non-consecutive days 0.050.
The variance correction method is effective for correcting intra-individual variation in estimated UIC following sampling on 3 consecutive days in four seasons in children. The method varies little between ages, sexes and urban or rural setting, but does vary between seasons.