Renal Stones: A Clinical Review

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Renal Stones: A Clinical Review

*Ramesh Aggarwal,1 Anshuman Srivastava,2 Sachin Kumar Jain,1 Ritika Sud,1 Rati Singh,1

1. Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi, India
2. ESIC Medical College and Hospital Faridabad, Haryana, India
*Correspondence to

Disclosure: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Received: 23.11.17 Accepted: 01.03.17
Citation: EMJ Urol. 2017;5[1]:98-103.


Renal stones are a common condition causing significant morbidity and economic burden. The prevalence of urinary tract stones in the developed nations ranges from 4–20%. Renal stones are of different types, the most common being the calcium oxalate stones. Various dietary, non-dietary, and urinary risk factors contribute to their formation. Their frequent association with systemic diseases (like hypertension, diabetes, and obesity) highlights the role of dietary and lifestyle changes in their occurrence, recurrence, and possible prevention. Non-contrast computed tomography (CT) identifies almost every stone and is the preferred investigation for identification. Ultrasound has its advantages, as it is low cost and requires no radiation, but is observer dependent. Metabolic profiles (including blood calcium, phosphate, magnesium, creatinine, uric acid, sodium, and potassium) should be measured and a detailed urinalysis should be done. This review further discusses the formation in depth, and covers risk factors and management of renal stones, and lays down the importance of preventive measures to avoid their recurrence.

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